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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

其他上榜的明星还有:凯特王妃(排名第八),泰勒·斯威夫特(第12名),金·卡戴珊(第38名),和索菲娅·维加拉(第100名)。

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周边环境:斯托宁顿位于康涅狄格州东南部的小纳拉甘西特湾(Little Narragansett Bay),从哈特福特(Hartford)和罗德岛的普罗维登斯(Providence, R.I.)开车约1小时可达,从纽约市开车约3小时。这里曾是一个具有悠久历史的繁忙港口,至今仍然保留着一支商业捕鱼船队,有几个分布着殖民式和联邦式建筑的历史区,以及一个繁荣的航海社区。在该镇的一端有个小型的公共海滩,而在另一端罗德岛的沃奇·希尔(Watch Hill)则有个大得多的海滩,开车大约20分钟可到。这栋希腊复兴式房屋带有此类建筑必不可少的爱奥尼亚柱和山形墙上的扇骨半圆窗,房屋就坐落在市镇中心。
是的,在具体时间问题上它们给不出答案,但定时炸弹的嘀嗒声很响、很近。“始于2013年4月份的贵金属崩盘,是全世界即将发生的情况的第一个警告信号。”
谢丽尔·布恩·艾萨克斯,学院理事会主席

Meanwhile, it's onto 2010:
希拉里的回应则迎来了掌声:"我认为我是个女权主义者,因为我相信在我们经济和社会的方方面面,女性都应该获得跟男性同样的权利,不管是在我们国内,还是在整个世界上。你们知道,我在公共生活中将大量精力投入到了为女性倡权上,通过法律、规定、文化等途径做一切力所能及的事情,改变依旧存在的、让女性退缩的那些成见。"
自从6年前开始编制该榜单以来,女性学员比例稳定增长,最新一届中占42%。与管理学硕士课程中女性学员48%的比例相比,这有些低,但它高于MBA课程中35%的比例。

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

4月全国商品房成交量下降

上海软科教育信息咨询有限公司于上周三发布的2018年“世界大学学术排名”显示,中国有62所研究型大学入围这份全球500强高校榜单。
avoid
3 . 《歌剧魅影》( T h e Phantom of the Opera )是 由安德鲁·韦伯(Andrew Webber)作曲的著名音乐剧,剧中的男主人公“魅影”(Phantom)的右脸上戴着一副面具。

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

Anxiety about addiction to screen time gave rise to a dubious new line of businesses: boot camps, often run by ex-military personnel, promising to help wayward youth kick the habit. But investigative reports p ublished in recent days by Beijing News and the Mirror reveal abusive conditions, leading to the death of at least one student, at the Zhengzhou Boqiang New Idea Life Training School, which billed itself a s an Internet-addiction recovery camp in eastern Henan province.
在这份榜单上,名列C罗和梅西之后的是NBA球星勒布朗·詹姆斯(5300万英镑)和网球运动员罗杰·费德勒(4600万英镑)。
While people in first-tier cities are under more pressure, smaller cities may not be the ideal place to live either, according to the 2016 Annual Report on Social Mentality of China by the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences.

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • 卓越雇主排名:66
  • 发改委指导意见:放开放宽除个别超大城市外的城市落户限制
  • Song “Fire In The Winter”(Kenji Wu and Dream Chorus)
  • “后装修”时代崛起 家居企业顺势发展是王道
  • 多彩LED剪纸灯面世 将于中国剪纸博物馆展出销售
  • Transport Ministry spokesman Xu Chengguang told a news conference that no further signs of life had been found and the chance of finding anyone else alive was "very slim."
    The pancreas produce insulin, and if yours don't, you need to inject yourself with the hormone manually. Diabetics are therefore trapped in a stressful routine of continually checking their blood sugar and then shooting insulin whenever the need arises.

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 家具以旧换新重启首日 政策竟成促销噱头, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

Click to zoom

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

养老地产需求日益增长 专家称服务需摆在首位

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

八成业内人士预测:明年建材价格将上涨

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • 谷歌2017全球搜索排名前十
    不管是什么根本原因,去年美国西部地区的极端温暖意味着,阿拉斯加州、亚利桑那州、加利福尼亚州和内华达州都创下了气温记录。加利福尼亚州的一些地区去年基本上没有冬天,那些地区的气温有时比季节正常温度高出10到15华氏度(5.5到8.3摄氏度)。在阿拉斯加的最大城市安克雷奇,2014年的气温从未低于华氏零度(或摄氏零下18度),在该市101年的气温记录中,这是首次。
  • Enrollment: NA
    "Let me point to the performance of China, in coming in at number 25 in the rankings, is now joining the upper income group of countries that have traditionally dominated the top slots in the global innovation index," the WIPO director-general, Francis Gurry, told a news conference.
    n. 拥抱
    二月的一天,苹果(Apple)的年度股东大会进行了一个多小时,蒂姆?库克(Tim Cook)已经耐心地回答了苹果进军电视市场的计划和他如何看待谷歌眼镜(Google Glass)等各类问题。但当一位参会听众就苹果各环保项目(比如其太阳能数据中心)的盈利能力向这位首席执行官发难的时候,库克发怒了。
    这晚,霉霉并没有参加这次颁奖典礼,虽然她提名最多。19岁的歌手Shaw表选突出,风头胜过了霉霉,在这场颁奖典礼上横扫众多奖项。

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 房市逐渐走好 涂料行业迎来市场曙光
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 泡沫与电商多重夹击 产业地产竞争走向深水

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

自1983年以来,每年的央视春晚就成为了中国人民春节必不可少的重要组成部分,也难怪主办方的每个举动都能成为关注的焦点。
此外,由于该机构的一些业务涉及为政府提供教育方面的建议,此类员工的专长是很宝贵的。
It is a timely warning. His findings, he writes, “point to a heightened risk of emerging market crises in the coming years as the Fed continues to normalise interest rates”.
《蝙蝠侠大战超人:正义黎明》将于2016年3月23日横扫各大影院。
Coca-Cola (KO, Fortune 500) Chief Executive Muhtar Kent thinks as both a first-generation American as well as a business leader that immigration reform is good for business. Kent outlined in a February USA Today op-ed how "lucky" he felt to be able to make his life in the U.S. and his belief that foreign entrepreneurs should have the same opportunity. The CEO wrote that he supports immigration reform because immigration is "an essential part of the growth calculus for this great country."
Actress in a Mini-Series or Movie: Sarah Paulson, “The People v. O. J. Simpson: American Crime Story”
如果反弹幅度小、时间短,那么显然结构性变化已经开始了。我希望,过多投资于大成本项目的公司以及仍然高度依赖于油气收入的国家对此做好了准备。

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • 《静待黎明》
  • “两材”合并拉开建材行业央企重组大幕 去产能全面提速
  • The remarks by Recep Tayyip Erdogan come less than 24 hours before Dutch voters go to the polls in a national election that has been coloured by a heated debate about the role of Islam in Dutch society, spurred by anti-Islam candidate Geert Wilders. Mr Wilders’ Freedom party (PVV) is polling second in the race.
    allure
  • 广东共有产权房政策征求意见 购买5年可转让
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • 欧洲管理学院协会(Cems)管理硕士项目——由30家商学院联合提供的国际项目——排名第九,比2015年下滑五名。该项目上一次上榜是在2015年。
    The most staggering scene is, of course, that in which the alien picks up a young man with the facial condition neurofibromatosis, played by Adam Pearson. Glazer brings to this scene an utter fearlessness and unsentimentality, perhaps a variation on a theme from David Lynch’s The Elephant Man. The alien does not essentially distinguish between his looks and those of her other victims, but her encounter with him – an encounter of two aliens? – triggers a crisis in which she becomes the prey rather than the hunter.
  • ‘Can’t fault, I was thinking “go on boys”,’ Alesha smiled.
    Much joy to you in the up coming year. May the warmest wishes, happy thoughts and friendly greetings come at New Year and stay with you all the year through.
  • 福布斯表示,如果不扣除管理费和税费,在2015年6月1日到2016年6月1日期间,全球收入最高的10位女星共入账2.05亿美元。
    At least 120 million American voters had been expected to cast votes in the race between the Democratic incumbent and Romney after a campaign focused on how to repair the ailing U.S. economy。
  • 8. Employment futures weak as pensions drain states, municipalities
    他们预测,在未来几十年中,炎热天气会变得更糟,这种天气已经在世界各地导致森林死亡、植物和动物物种灭绝、陆地冰层融化,以及海平面上升速度加快。
    n. 文件,公文,文档
  • “LBS has broadened my profession horizons and opened international career opportunities,” said one graduate. He added: “In the three years after graduation I have worked in the US, Canada and Hong Kong, while rotating in different businesses from corporate banking to debt capitalmarkets”.
    很多人会这么想:“只要我努力工作,我总会被人注意到的。” 但是这通常不对。如果你想升职,那么当一些责任分到你头上,让你大施拳脚,你一定要让你的上级,你上级的上级知道你到底为公司贡献了什么。
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 环比多增699亿 3月强调控下个人房贷不降反升 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

报告称我国既有建筑9成高耗能 南方仍是零敲碎打

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

2017年1月全国建材家居景气指数BHI:71.35

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

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Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

济南楼市调控:二手房交易酝酿全面资金监管

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

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  • LEAST LADYLIKE
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The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • His first coding effort resulted in an app that played audio snippets from speeches by his idol, Steve Jobs, whose unauthorized biography he'd recently devoured. 'It was rejected by Apple for every reason,' D'Aloisio says now, laughing. 'Copyrighted audio, poor functionality, too simple.' Another early design allowed users to touch a picture of wood, producing a knocking sound. A third transformed a smartphone screen into a treadmill for your fingers. That one earned about $120 in sales on its first day.
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • inspiring
    乔布斯在苹果博览会上展示iPod mini ,2004年1月6日,旧金山
    This year, the average sales price for an apartment in New York City topped $1 million, a milestone with far-reaching implications. As the city’s population soars, prices and buildings are rising in neighborhoods that missed the last housing boom.
  • 在波尔多足球场外,一个欢闹的视频中摇摆的人群对着一名笑着的年轻女子大唱“Can’t Take My Eyes Off You and Hey Baby”。

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • She said: 'On a scale of one to 10, I feel I'm at a nine because there's definitely room for improvement. I know I could go further.'
  • 64城房价环比继续跌 沪广深已“停跌”
  • reflect反射;沉思+ion→反射;思考

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

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  • Household substance abuse
  • 卫浴洁具市场投诉的焦点问题
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

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  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
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  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
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  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

We began the year worried that the US was poised to withdraw from the World Trade Organisation. That hasn’t happened. And it’s now unlikely to any time soon.

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

The Wizards need to surge ASAP if they want to stay in this. We saw what happened last year when they waited too long to get it together.
If you have a question, come to my office. Don't corner me in the bathroom.
"Poverty has stunted further growth in Internet users, which has kept the Net user population to around 50 percent," Li said.
5. 地缘政治事件。不久之前,石油供应稍有差池,油价就会飙升。比如说2014年初,利比亚内乱造成该国石油出口中断,油价应声上涨。在伊拉克, 极端组织ISIS领了部分地区,石油供应中断的顾虑也造成油价急剧攀升。然而,自此之后,地缘政治事件对油价的影响大为减弱。2014年最后几周,利比亚再现战事。但市场仅在油价短暂上扬后便把这一问题抛诸脑后。不过,历史一再证明,地缘政治危机是对油价影响最大的短期因素之一。(财富中文网)
李亦表示:“贫困阻碍了网民数量的进一步增加,使得网民数量占全部人口的比例只在50%左右。”
Frederickson说:“人们远离职场越久,他们想要再次踏入就越难。”
According to the institution, only women with a net worth exceeding 8 billion yuan are eligible to be selected as one of the top 50 richest women in China.
“即便人们充分了解了(美联储政策的作用),市场动态也可能相对容易地变得不稳定或不利,”他说,“届时你将陷入一个卖盘压力自我强化的循环。”
在最新发布的英国《金融时报》管理学硕士(MiM)排行榜中,英国商学院有所进步,而法国商学院有所退步。
STONINGTON, CONN.

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

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Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • But with a Republican-controlled State Senate, opponents of rent stabilization doubt that 2015 will be a watershed year for the tenants’ movement. Sherwin Belkin, a lawyer who represents landlords, said: “Landlords view this as an opportunity to make some much-needed changes to rent regulation.”
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

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  • 1. What big brother is eating isn’t noodles, but loneliness.
  • 2015家居业十大热词大盘点
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One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
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  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
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This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

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