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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

指数:96.6

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Apple Inc.'s Chief Executive Officer Steve Jobs is shown in this combination photo of file photographs dating (top row L to R) July 2000, November 2003, September 2005, (bottom L to R) September 2006, January 2007 and September 2008. Jobs will take a medical leave of absence until the end of June because his health problems are "more complex" than he had thought, shocking investors and sending the company's shares down as much as 10 percent on January 14, 2009.
但现实远比他想象的艰难。雷文斯克罗夫特表示:“我曾以为这就是一个机会,要花掉两年,但现实是严峻的,因为这活不好干。”此外,他的导师在雷曼兄弟(Lehman Brothers)工作,这家银行于2008年破产。他大笑着说:“这段指导关系持续的时间没有我希望的那么长。”
vt. 超过,胜过,超出界限

2010年最让人痴迷的东西是备受期待的iPhone,其他受关注的对象还有女演员林赛 罗韩、iPad、电视节目《欢乐合唱团》和《泽西海岸》。
Get Out
包括加拿大在内的北美地区票房收入达到了111亿美元,同比去年上涨8%,这主要要归功于包括《侏罗纪公园》(本土票房6.52亿美元)、《复仇者联盟:奥创纪元》(4.59亿美元)、《头脑特工队》(3.56亿美元)等几部大卖影片。

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

家具行业低迷现状或持续到2017年

2013年排名:2
Had the North Koreans not set off another nuclear test at the weekend the big story this week on the Korean peninsula might have been the Trump administration’s odd timing in announcing its plans to pull out of a trade deal with Seoul.
But Mr Stevenson said “this might reflect that the US is being bolder than the EU in protecting domestic steel producers”.

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

n. 火
limited
In January, Wal-Mart (WMT, Fortune 500) U.S. president And CEO Bill Simon pledged that the world's largest retailer would hire 100,000 veterans over the next five years. In addition, the biggest private employer in the U.S. said it would offer employment to any honorably discharged veteran within his or her first 12 months off active duty.

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • 1.《廷巴克图》,导演:阿伯德拉马纳·希萨柯(Abderrahmane Sissako)。
  • 李克强:过去一年完成全年经济社会发展主要目标任务
  • n. 行政,管理,行政部门
  • 抢房场景使人对市场真实温度失去判断
  • 自建渠道并非易事 木门企业该从何处着手?
  • Other Chinese companies that filed a large number of patents included ZTE, Alibaba, Xiaomi, BYD and Haier, all of which are rapidly expanding into Europe.
    6.杰克·谢帕德差点在第一集中死去

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 调控之后高烧渐退 深圳房价10月环比跌9.7%, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

绿色建材满天飞 装修市场多李鬼

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

社科院专家:谁在为北京学区房埋单?

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

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    Shares in Hyundai and AmorePacific slid on Friday, down 4.4 per cent and 12.5 per cent respectively in late afternoon trading in Seoul.
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    节目14 歌曲《报喜》,陈慧琳
    The 2016 ranking features a record 90 programmes, up from 70 in 2014.
    Makers of processed food, soda and fast food see markets in the developing world as their greatest growth opportunities. At the same time, obesity rates and weight-related illnesses are on the rise in developing countries. An ongoing series of articles examined the interaction of these two trends, starting with cases in Brazil, Ghana and Colombia. Taken together, these stories reveal “a new global food order, and a new health crisis.”
    The No. 1 thing in job security is your relationship with your boss. Even if he says, "I'm sorry I really wanted to keep you, but they made me lay you off," that's almost never true. He probably made that decision.

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 互联网冲击租房市场 中介行业试水“去门店”
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 百余“调控令” 为何难抑楼市“火焰山”?

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

In a bid to raise awareness of one of the world's most endangered species and the Chengdu Panda Base in China, the 108 performers were hard to miss as they entertained Londoners and children during school visits with conservationist and base ambassador Nigel Marven.
7. Amy Adams - $13.5 million
4. 贵金属:“都在玩消失!经济周期下行”
“It’s very easy to see the leaders in the current market are in a fairly tenuous or precarious position right now,” Gilbert says. “That’s evident by how quickly they’re innovating on each new device type.”
同时,11月服务业PMI指数是51.2。此前的10月份该指数为52。本周早些时候报出的11月份制造业PMI指数为48.6,高于48.3的预期。10月份该指数则为48.3。
这部13个小时的,关于长毛狗经历的影片花了45年才来到美国的影院,但时机却恰到好处。里维特先生淘气地在巴黎、法国文学与若干永恒的哲学谜题(真实的本质是什么,我们怎么知道我们知道,因与果之间的联系)之间徜徉,它既是一个迷人的,被重新发觉饿出来的艺术品,片长简直疯狂;与此同时,也警示着电影的未来。一切都已经做过了,一切都仍然是可能的。
尽管与普通的开瓶器并无二致,但它拥有精良的设计,是由不锈钢和实木制成的。

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • “Obviously, a single year, even if it is a record, cannot tell us much about climate trends,” said Stefan Rahmstorf, head of earth system analysis at the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research in Germany. “However, the fact that the warmest years on record are 2014, 2010 and 2005 clearly indicates that global warming has not ‘stopped in 1998,’ as some like to falsely claim.”
  • 水龙头强制性国标快速出台 消费者关注产品价格
  • 5. bedazzled / a . 眼花缭乱的。
    中国的创新表现有所改善,在"创新质量"方面排名第17,这是个考量高校水平、科学出版物数量和国际专利申请量的指标。
  • 原材料涨价对涂料行业的影响真有那么大?
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • Volatility in currency markets is also likely to be a factor for agricultural commodity prices in the next 12 months, with the euro likely to depreciate as a result of French, Dutch and German elections, Rabobank reckons.
    这个节目围绕宾夕法尼亚州匹兹堡(Pittsburgh)的Abby Lee舞蹈学校里面的小孩子展开。
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  • You might think Hawaiian has it relatively easy, since its flights rarely have to contend with the kind of challenging weather conditions found on the mainland. Hawaiian perennially rates high in on-time performance rankings, topping the most recent DOT list i n September. It recently announced it will branch well beyond its island home with non-stop service to Beijing.
    谨祝新年快乐幸福,大吉大利。
  • The world's first flying bicycle flew on November 9, 1961, when Derek Pigott of the University of Southampton flew in a bicycle with an airplane-like body. It was called the Southampton University Man Powered Aircraft (sumpac). Derek furiously pedaled the air-bike to get it off the ground. It then flew 1.8 meters (about 6 ft) above the ground over a distance of 64 meters (210 ft). While the flight was short and slow, it still does not change the fact that it was the first bicycle to fly and at the same time, the first human-powered flight.
    精算师的工作是对风险给出一个经济数值。例如,飓风摧毁一幢临海别墅的可能性,或某养老制度的长期负债。CareerCast.com的出版人托尼李(Tony Lee)说,在一个充满各种自然和人为风险的世界,精算行业正蓬勃发展。他还说,精算师人才目前有很大缺口,所以其薪资还在不断上涨。(据美国劳工部统计,2010年精算师的薪资中值为87,650美元。)
    有时,它是英语中最可怕的字眼之一。但是当机会在你的职业生涯中出现时,你应该准备好说出这个字眼:Yes。
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    FOYLE’S WAR (acorn.tv, Feb. 2) After nabbing the final three episodes of “Agatha Christie’s Poirot” last year, the streaming service Acorn TV scores another coup in the field of traditional British mysteries with the American premiere of this superior show’s ninth season. Starring Michael Kitchen as Christopher Foyle, a detective as honorable as he is shrewd, the series has morphed over the years from a provincial home-front cop show to a le Carré-like Cold War thriller. New episodes involve the Nuremberg trials and Britain’s role in Palestine.
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 深圳银行普遍收紧房贷 二手房成交量受影响较小 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

取消预售传闻引地产股下跌

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

这个“六一”为孩子打造家居游乐场

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

宜家要在中国开电商了 或年内上线

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

八大问题“诠释”LED行业跨境电商“百态”

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • 爆破公司总指挥贾永胜告诉中国国营电视台CCTV说:像这样在市中心的大规模爆破任务,不但要保证爆破结果(精确),还要控制爆破产生的不良影响。
  • IFAD的政策顾问、这篇报告的作者佩德罗·德·瓦斯孔塞卢斯称:“这确实是一个全球性的现象,由于缺乏机会,人们不得不背井离乡,出门打工养活家人。”
  • 二线楼市疯狂:2小时卖完866套房 买到如同中彩票

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • 在最初的角色分配中,由迈克尔·基顿来扮演这个角色。不料,美国广播公司的高管们恳求编剧和制片人让杰克活下来,他们认为这个角色太讨人喜欢了,不应该这么快就被安排死去。编剧最终同意了。迈克尔·基顿并不想签约一部长篇电视剧,便由马修·福克斯代替他来扮演杰克的角色。接下来的电视剧情便众所周知了。
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • 不过,五家总部驻北京的旅行社表示,他们仍在销售3月份的韩国游产品,而中国最大在线旅游公司携程(Ctrip)也做了同样表态。中国三大国有航空公司的代表向彭博(Bloomberg)表示,他们并未收到要求停止销售赴韩国机票的指示。
    不过,在交易商的仓库里和收藏家的脑海里还有大量早期绘画大师的作品,它们的要价仍停留在汤米·库珀那个年代。不幸的是,在如今的市场上,以那样的价格,很多画作都将像被小提琴砸了个大洞的斯特拉迪瓦里画作一样卖不出去。
    n. 监牢,监狱,拘留所
  • 1.Photography: 22.3 percent increase

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • delicate
  • 楼市进入全面调整期 数据全面下滑房价上涨乏力
  • American brands such as Chipotle, Texas Instruments and General Dynamics are on the list for the first time.

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 北京:违规转租转借公租房五年内不能再申请
  • Household substance abuse
  • 天津爆炸:美克等家居企业受损
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

全国住房公积金缴存总额超12万亿 支持基本住房消费力度显著

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 家居建材品牌入驻商场 多业态或成主流?
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 这些大城市迎来“零门槛落户” 会影响楼市限购吗?
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

但是,是什么推动了乐观或悲观情绪呢?库迪斯与巴塞罗那庞培法布拉大学(Universitat Pompeu Fabra)的汉斯-乔亚吉姆o沃斯发现了一些令人意外的答案。

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

201007/109869.shtml
Celebuzz has pulled together some of the best snaps of celebrities who go pumpkin picking.Have a look now in the gallery above, then tell us: Are you ready to celebrate Halloween on Wednesday?
3. oDesk&Elance
Dachis says: 2011 saw a huge bounce for Dominos in brand enthusiasm from their brand relaunch which 2012 just couldn’t match. It’s a shame they can’t redesign their recipes every year.
反对:《请以你的名字呼唤我》在很多方面的表现都很不错,但却没有哪一方面是最突出的。也许“甜茶”蒂莫西克莱门特的表演是该片冲奥的最大可能。
adj. 人口统计学的
《巴克斯托姆》(Backstrom),Fox,1月22日播出。去年,福克斯推出根据一部澳大利亚电视剧《法庭浪子》(Rake),由格雷格·金尼尔(Greg Kinnear)主演,讲述一个自毁律师的故事。那部剧没成功,但现在Fox又试着推出了一部根据瑞典系列小说改编的自毁侦探的故事,由《办公室》(The Office)男星雷恩·威尔森(Rainn Wilson)主演。这部剧由Fox的系列剧《识骨寻踪》(Bones)的编剧哈特·汉森(Hart Hanson)主创,但在试播集里,威尔森饰演的巴克斯托姆看上去更像豪斯医生(House),而不像《识骨寻踪》里的角色。
as朝向,soci(同伴,社会)-成为同伴-联合
官员们意识到发生了什么之后,他们立刻想上台救场。《爱乐之城》演员和剧组人员已经开始了获奖感言,听到这个消息,心都碎了。
詹姆斯也反映出了一种趋势,从邓肯到马努·吉诺比利再到文斯卡特,也都是这样。调理、人体健康科学和营养正在为运动员们铺平道路,保持他们的身体素质,使得他们可以打更多的比赛。或许,在他36岁的时候,詹姆斯仍会是球队中最好的球员,即便现在看来这很疯狂。

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

《不动产登记条例》即将落地 民众期待与担忧并存

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • Enthusiastic supporters of the idea of a “universal basic income” for all citizens, meanwhile, will look to Finland where a trial is now well under way. In France, Emmanuel Macron will try to tread a delicate line in 2018 as he reforms the labour market, hoping to inject flexibility without increasing insecurity or incensing the unions.
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • 其实,在第一部iPhone手机发布的前一年,LG集团已经推出了全触屏手机。虽然那也不是第一台触屏手机。1992年,世界上第一台触屏手机IBM Simon发布。而触屏技术在"西蒙"之前已经出现。1965年,E·A·约翰逊发明了第一个触屏设备——平板电脑,截止到1995年,一直由空中交通管制员使用。本特·斯顿普和弗兰克·贝克(Frank Beck)在20世纪70年代早期发明了电容式触屏,与约翰逊所发明触屏不同的是,它不能用手指操作,而是需要使用触控笔。在1971年,山姆·赫斯特发明了第一台电阻式触屏,他称之为"电子图表"。手指和触控笔都可以对它进行操作。在1985年,惠普公司发明了世界上第一台触屏电脑H-P150。在1993年,苹果公司也发布了第一个触屏设备——牛顿个人电子助理设备。但此产品并不成功,它的销量很低。
  • 热点城市月供压力排名 深圳居首北京其次
  • Another indicator of bitcoin’s momentum is the number of mainstream businesses that accept it. In 2014, Microsoft MSFT -0.84% , PayPal, Dell, and Dish Network DISH 2.24% , among many others, announced they would accept bitcoin as payment for a range of products. Those companies joined companies such as Target (which accepts Gyft, which can be purchased with bitcoin), Overstock.com, and WordPress. Even the publisher of Fortune, Time Inc. TIME -0.40% ,began accepting the cryptocurrency for magazine subscriptions. Yahoo YHOO -1.02% also added bitcoin to its Yahoo Finance tracking site last year, lending the currency additional legitimacy, and Google Finance GOOG -1.30% quickly followed suit. “Adoption of bitcoin is becoming more commonplace, and we feel it is relevant to our industry and to our users,” a Yahoo spokesperson told CoinDesk. Don’t be at all surprised if Yahoo soon goes even bigger on bitcoin—whether by acquiring a bitcoin startup or some other announcement—as part of CEO Marissa Mayer’s ongoing effort to make the stalling search giant more hip.
  • 环保和市场双重压力 陶瓷企业阵痛中寻求突破
  • 马特达蒙凭借他在《火星救援》中扮演的被困宇航员一角而荣获喜剧类最佳男主角奖项。

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • “以房养老”试点遇冷 水土不服诸多问题待解
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • 但是,房地产经纪公司世邦魏理仕(CBRE)香港机构投资团队主管约翰?戴维斯(John Davies)说,价格下降应会让香港房地产市场变得更加可靠。“这个市场正在显示出机构投资者更了解的成熟市场的特征,”他说。
  • The 23-year-old country music darling was awarded the honour by DoSomething.org, which released its list of Top 20 Celebs Gone Good of 2012 this week. According to the organisation, Taylor topped the list after donated $4million to the Country Hall of Fame museum.

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

互联网+时代 涂料企业如何利用好“大数据”

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